China provides timely and efficient observation of extreme weather, climate and environmental events regionally and globally by operating both geostationary and polar-orbiting meteorological satellites.
China Meteorological Administration (CMA) introduced the Emergency Support Mechanism of FENGYUN (FY) Satellite (FY ESM) in 2018, open to international users who made a request once visited by such extreme events as typhoon, heavy rain, severe convection, forest or grassland fire and sand and dust storm. In this case, the on-duty FY satellite is activated to initiate highly frequent observation of a given area at an interval of up to 5 minutes, processing and generating images and quantitative products, which are provided through such channels as CMACast, Internet and direct satellite broadcasting, to inform the processes of disaster preparedness, mitigation and relief in a timely fashion.
As of August 2018, the on-orbit geostationary FY series are operating from 4E to 173W, the data from which are used for severe weather monitoring and forecasting. See Table 1 for details.
Table 1: List of capabilities of FY satellites currently on-orbit (As of August 2018)
|79°E||FY-2H||Normal observation (hourly, 28 full-disc images/day)||Data available|
|86.5°E||FY-2E||Bi-sat observation (half-hourly, 28 full-disc images/day)||Data available|
|99.5°E||FY-2G||Bi-sat observation (hourly, 28 full-disc images/day)||Data available|
|104.7°E||FY-4A||Normal observation (40 full-disc images/day, 165 images of China and its surrounding areas)||Data available|
|112°E||FY-2F||Area scanning||Emergency observation services and data available|
Figure：Coverage of FY-2 series satellite
Figure：Area scanning by FY-2F
As of August 2018, the FY polar-orbiting meteorological satellites operating on-orbit include FY-3B, FY-3C and FY-3D, which are open to regional users for a requested data support to disaster monitoring and analyses. The instruments that can be requested are shown in Table 2.
Table 2: List of emergency data from FY-3 satellites
|VIRR||FY-3B, FY-3C||1km||L1, L2|
|MERSI||FY-3B、FY-3D||250m, 500m, 1km||L1, L2|
The eligibility of a user is open to Members of World Meteorological Organization (WMO). A Permanent Representative with WMO presents a written application to the Permanent Representative of China with WMO and designates a focal point as an authorized user contact. CMA opens an authorized account for an applicant for activation of FY ESM.
In case that it is deemed necessary to change the focal point of an authorized user, the Permanent Representative of this user with WMO presents a written application to the Permanent Representative of China with WMO.
An international user may request CMA to activate FY ESM before, during and after an extreme event such as typhoon, heavy rain, severe convection, forest or grassland fire and sand and dust storm, etc., with one of the following references provided:
When receiving a request for emergency support, which conflicts with other emergency requests, CMA will prioritize such requests subject to the performance of the watch satellite and the development of the said event, the order of which is generally as follows:
An international user shall make a request preferably 24 hours in advance when it needs to activate the FY geostationary meteorological satellite for intensive observation of a given area to, with the maximum duration of intensive observation being no more than 48 hours. Any extension needs to be re-requested.
If and when an international user needs data observed by FY polar-orbiting meteorological satellites, each requested duration shall not exceed 7 days. Any extension needs to be re-requested.
Figure: Activation of FY ESM
The data, images and quantitative products derived from the intensive observation of an area by the FY geostationary satellite are provided to international users through such channels as CMACast, NSMC portal, satellite broadcasting and FTP.
The use of data and products derived from FY ESM shall be bound by CMA data policy. The “essential” data and products declared by CMA in accordance with Resolution 40 (Cg-XII) are free to be used for any purpose. The data and products which are not the “essential” data and products declared by CMA in accordance with Resolution 40 (Cg-XII) shall only be used for official duties in support of the protection of life and property, and shall not be used for any commercial activities.
Users can login to http://www.nsmc.org.cn to download the FY Satellite Weather Application Platform (SWAP) and the FY Satellite Environmental and Ecological Monitoring System (SMART) to process and display FY satellite emergency data.
The international user shall send comments to CMA concerning the emergency services applied.